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Steel Industry Glossary


Side trimmer.

Salt Spray Test
A test to determine the life of coated steel when exposed to corrosive saltwater solution (generally 5% NaCl).

The ferrous oxide on the surfaces of the hot bands; removed by pickling solution of hydrochloric acid. Also a device used to weigh the coils.

Cutting the surface of slabs, ordinarily by using a gas torch, to remove surface defects prior to rolling at the Hot Mill.

Scratch or Gouge
This type of defect can be recognized, in most cases, as to its source. If the scratch or gouge occurs in the hot strip mill there will be an oxide which has formed at the base of it. Scratches or gouges occurring at the finishing end can be recognized by the bright appearance at the base of the defect which is indicative of oxide removal after the steel has cooled.

Coating defects consisting of the randomly spaced undissolved particles, usually resin particles, which are immersed in the coating. They are raised up in the coating and appear somewhat like fine sand sprinkled throughout the film.

Shape Control

Ability to produce material to a given geometric flatness standard. (See Flatness)

Shape Defect

Geometric non-uniformity of a strip, such as bent strip, coil set, center buckle, wavy edge, etc.

Sheet Mill
The facility at Weirton Steel which produces hot dipped galvanized products, including galvanized, galvannealed and Galfan.

Sheet Products

1. Hot Roll (01) Uncoated, heavy gauge, fully processed in Strip Steel, never cold reduced at Tandem Mill. Cold Roll (02) Uncoated, heavy gauge, primarily processed in Strip Steel, although some goes to the Tin Mill, always cold reduced at Tandem Mill. Galvanized (05,06) "Bath" coated with zinc, heavy gauge, primarily processed thru Strip Steel & Sheet Mill, majority is cold reduced at Tandem Mill. Weirzin (07) electrogalvanized Zinc coated, normally lighter gauge than galvanized, processed through Strip Steel & Tin Mill, mostly single reduced. (Tandem)

Shot Blast Roll Finish

The surface finish (with a grit microfinish) on the rolls in the last stand of tandem mill or temper mill; determines the surface finish of the product where a grit finish produced to a specified micro-inch reading is desired.

Single Reduced

Refers to temper rolling in the tin mill. No gauge reduction occurs here. Steel sheet that is rolled in multiple-strand reduction mills while cold, then annealed and temper rolled to produce thin gauges for can making. Besides reducing gauge and permitting fabrication of lighter weight cans, cold rolling also improves the steel’s surface and metallurgical properties.

Single Spot Test
A test of galvanized (or any other metallic) coating weights administered by sampling the coated steel across the width at two inches from each edge and dead center. See Triple Spot Test.

Skid Marks
Visibly colder "stripes" on slabs caused by contact with water-cooled skids in a pusher-type reheat furnace. WSC now uses a walking beam reheat furnace, thereby eliminating skid marks.

Skin Passed
Steel which has been processed through the Skin Mill (Temper Mill).

Skin Roll
A product that has been processed at the Skin Mill..


Slabs are the raw material for WSC’s hot-strip mill , produced off the caster, and are 9 inches thick, 32-48 inches wide by 220-398 inches long.

1. A waste product in ironmaking and steelmaking. Limestone, acting as a flux, combines with impurities to form slag. Usually slags consist of combinations of acid oxides with basic oxides and neutral oxides are added to aid fusibility.  2. Molten remnants of the coal burning process.

Slit Edge
The relatively smooth edge produced from side trimming or slitting. See Mill Edge.

1. Area on the Pickler where the strip is sidetrimmed (slit) to its proper width. 2. Sidetrims the edges of the strip to certain width in the customer’s specifications, or the vertical cutting of coil material to form narrow strip product.

Slivers are due to defective teeming of the molten metal and to a tearing of corners of the steel in blooming, roughing, or finishing. Tearing is attributed to many things, such as overoxidation in the open hearth, or burning during reheating or soaking.

Joining metals by fusion of alloys that have relatively low melting points – most commonly, lead-base or tin-base alloys, which are the soft solders. Hard solders are alloys that have silver, copper, or nickel bases and use of these alloys with melting points higher than 800 degrees F is generally termed brazing.

The cracking and flaking of metal particles from a surface.

Finish achieved when zinc is allowed to "freeze" naturally on the sheet – galvanize. Achieved by adding antimony to the hot dip bath.

Spangle Free
A galvanized product in which the spangle formation has been suppressed; accomplished by eliminating Antimony and Lead in the molten zinc bath during the production of Hot Dipped Galvanized. Galvannealed is always spangle free.

Special Killed

1. Low carbon aluminum killed steels used mainly for extra deep drawing varieties of sheet and strip.  2. Steel deoxidized by silicon or aluminum or in combination to reduce the oxygen content to a minimum so that no reaction occurs during solidification of the metal.

Special Treatment
A treatment applied to Weirzin (electrogalvanized) to enhance corrosion resistance.

The chemical composition and dimensions of products made by the plant. The specifications include all processes required to achieve the finished product.

Spooled Coil

A coil having edges that are turned up (like a spool of thread).

SR Plate
Single Reduced Plate. This product comes from the Temper Mills and goes to the Tin Mill for processing but does not get any further cold reduction.

See Steel Recycling Institute.

Stack Test

A full width sample of chem-treat steel saved for metallurgical testing.

A defect on the plate causing a discoloration of the plate.

Stainless Steel

1. A corrosion resistant steel containing a higher percentage of chromium, generally 10% more.  2. By AISI definition, a steel is called "Stainless" when it contains 4% or more chromium.

Steam Blowing Process
A process that puts water droplets on steel leaving the galvanizing pot to suppress spangle formation. See Minimized Spangle and Spangle Free.

Steel Drum
Center insert that keeps a coil from collapsing. Used on DR material.

Steel Insert

Small corrugated insert used to keep coils from collapsing before rewinding.

Steel Recycling Institute
A steel industry association that promotes and sustains the recycling of all steel products. The SRI educates the solid waste industry, government, business and ultimately the consumer about the benefits of steel's infinite recycling cycle.

The amount of elongation or compression that occurs in a metal at a given stress or load. Generally in terms of inches elongation per inch of material.

Stretcher Strains
Irregular lines that develop on steel during the drawing or stretching process. See fluting.

A coating defect consisting of a series of near parallel lines or channels in the cured coating. Striation is a type of flow mark, which is caused by some contaminant, such a silicone flowout. Striation is similar to ribbing, but striation is usually smaller in size and not always parallel.

Strip Steel
Facility at Weirton Steel which produces hot rolled bands, hot rolled and pickled bands, cold rolled steels and cold rolled bands for further processing in Sheet Mill and Tin Mill.

1. A flat rolled steel product. Strip is produced to more closely controlled thickness than sheet.  2. Another name for the steel that travels through the line.

Structural Quality

Material applicable to the various classes of structures, indicated by the standard specifications, which is suitable for the different mechanical operations employed for the fabrication of such structures. Structural quality (the characteristics of which are defined in the standard specifications of the American Society for Testing Materials) represents the quality of steel produced under regular or normal manufacturing conditions.

Sulfide Staining

A coating defect consisting of a dark grey-black colored residue on tinplate which occurs when a break in the coating permits a high sulfur food to contact the tinplate.

Surface Finish (Tin Mill Products)

The ground roll finishes are : 7B, a smooth finish, normally for melted coatings intended for special applications; 7C, the standard mill finish, for either melted or unmelted coatings is the finish used for most applications. The blasted roll finishes are 5B, a shot blast finish (SBF) with a melted tin coating; 5C, a shot blast finish with an unmelted tin coating, principally for crowns and closures; 5D, a shot blast finish with and unmelted tin coating primarily for D&I cans.

Surface Imperfections

A superficial defect that mars the surface of steel and is detrimental to the end use; examples include blisters and roll mark defects.

Surface Inclusion
An inclusion or non-metallic particles that shows through at the surface of the steel. (See also Inclusion)

Surface Oil

Oil which is applied for corrosion protection or other special purposes.

Surface Roughness

The texture or "pattern" of a steel surface determined by the grit on the roll or the grind on a brite roll.


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