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Steel Industry Glossary


See Batch Anneal

Refers to metal strap Signode band that is one half inch wide. This band is used to thread and pull the strip through the line.

Bare Spot
A location on the strip where coating did not adhere.

Base Box
Unit of area of 112 sheets of tin mil products (tin plate, tin free steel or black plate) 14 by 20 inches, or 31,360 square inches. Tin Plate is sold, and carried in finished inventory, on a weight per unit area rather than on a thickness basis.

Base Metal Contamination
Dirt or other impurities in the steel strip.

Base Type
Type of base used for cooling; i.e., water or fan. The North Anneal uses water-cooled.

Base Weight
Tin Mill term; Thickness divided by .00011. Also weight in pounds of one Base Box of Tin plate. In finished inventory base weight is specified instead of decimal thickness.

Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF)
See Basic Oxygen Process.

Basic Oxygen Furnace (B.O.F.)
A furnace that refines a charge of molten iron and scrap into steel. The B.O.F., as it is called, blows pure oxygen into the charge, creating a vigorous chemical reaction to refine the metal. Also see Basic Oxygen Process.

Basic Oxygen Process (BOP)
A process in which molten steel is produced in a furnace by blowing oxygen into molten iron, scrap and flux materials. The furnace is known as Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF).

Basis Weight
See Base Weight.

Batch Anneal
The process by which a large, stationary stack of steel coils (4 coils high) is subjected to a long heat-treating cycle. This process enables the cold-rolled sheet to fully recrystallize into the softest possible product conforming to customer specifications. Controlling the recrystallization process makes a fine-grained microstructure easy to obtain, and minimizes the tendencies for retention of directional properties of the rolled steel which could produce undesirable shapes in the stamping of a cylindrical part such as a can. Also see Anneal and Continuous Anneal.

Bend Tests
Various tests used to assess the ductility of steel when subjected to bending. Tests may include determination of the minimum radius or diameter required to make a satisfactory bend and the number of repeated bends that the material can withstand without failure when it is bent through a given angle and over a definite radius.

Also BY-COIL. Tin Mill term. Customers buy "by coil" or "bi-coil" rather than cut sheets.

Black Iron
Uncoated steel product.

Black Plate
1. Any steel that has not been coated - usually has gone through Tandem mill (cold-rolled). Also defines a product, uncoated material in tin plate gauges. 2. 128 lb. (.0141 in) and lighter tin mill product which has not received any additional metallic coating during production. 3. A low carbon cold reduced steel intended for use in the uncoated state or for coating with tin and chromium.

Blast Furnace
1. A furnace in which solid fuel (limestone, coke, iron ore) is combined with high-pressure, hot air blast (120,000 psi) to smelt ore in a continuous process (They are never stopped. They can be slowed down or idled). A Blast Furnace in the iron and steel industry is used to produce liquid iron.

A coating defect consisting of the migration of an ingredient to the surface of a coating, or a migration, which stains in an adjacent area. The term blooming is also a form of bleeding - usually associated with lubricants rather than pigments.

1. Coating defect consisting of the formation of bubbles in a coating, which appear as hemispherical elevations. The blisters are hollow, and are usually caused by entrapped air or solvent. 2. A raised spot on the surface on the surface of metal due to expansion of gas which causes a subsurface metal separation such as inclusions and small laminations.

Block Off
1. Wooden separators which are used at both the bottom of a lift and between IPM's (bundles) of a lift. 2. The act of placing 4x4s between the lifts in the piler's box.

A coating defect consisting of the adhesion of two adjoining coatings or materials. Usually this term refers to the coating on one side of coated plate being tacky or sticky and adhering to the adjacent sheet.

A coating defect consisting of the migration of an ingredient, in the coating, to the surface of the cured film. Usually blooming refers to waxes or lubricants, which rise to the surface and cause a hazy appearance.

Blow Back

A coating defect consisting of a lower coating film weight on the bottom of the coated sheet caused by high velocity air in the oven. Blow back usually occurs with high solids coatings which have little solvent to evaporate and "set" the film.

A coating defect consisting of the whitening of a cured film which results in a translucent or opaque appearance with accompanying loss of gloss. Blushing usually occurs during the pasteurization or steam processing of films which are undercured or water sensitive.

Treating cold rolled or galvanized steel surfaces with phosphate to improve paint-adherence.

Bonderized Coating
A thin film of phosphate pretreatment applied to a steel surface (bare or zinc coated) to enhance paintability.

Box Annealing
A process of annealing a ferrous alloy in a suitable closed metal container, with or without packing material, in order to minimize oxidation. The charge is usually heated slowly to a temperature below the transformation range, but sometimes above or within it, and is then cooled slowly.

Brake Press Bending
An operation which produces various degree bends when fabricating parts from steel.

Cracks or separation of the steel.

Uncoiler rolls through which the strip passes; composed of a mandrel and leveling rolls which unwind the strip prior to processing through the Pickler. Breaker rolls assist in breaking up the Hot Mill surface scale.

Bridle Unit
A three-roll cluster used to control line tension at strategic locations on the line.

1. Regular galvanize coating (not minimized spangle or JP). 2. Rolls that have no grit; smooth finish on surface of steel. No. 9 Tandem only runs brite rolls.

Brittle Inter-metallic Layer
An iron-zinc alloy layer formed between the steel substrate and the free zinc of galvanized coatings.

A mark transferred to the strip surface from a defective process roll. Similar to dent or punchmark.

See Butyl Stearate.

Build Up Coil
A coil made by putting together two or more coils to make one max coil or one shippable coil.

Specific number of sheets which equals 1 unit of production. Number is determined by multiplying sheets/Packages/BUNDLE. For example, an order calls for 112 sheets/package. According to the maximum height allowed for a lift. Therefore, multiplying 15 packages X 112 sheets = 1680 sheets/bundle.

Burnt Rubber
Small or large black spots that generally show up on surface and are generally caused by pickling steel too hot.

Burr Mashers
Devices used to remove build up on edge of strip after the slitting process.

1. Built up edge or roughness on the bottom of the strip resulting from slitting or shearing.

Butt Weld
Weld made to join two strip ends set against each other.

Butt Welding
Joining two edges or ends by placing one against the other and welding them.

Rotating disc-type valve which moves 90 degrees from the closed position to the fully open position. Normally used to stop or control the flow through a line, the butterfly regulates BOP steam and power house steam on main plant service line.

Butyl Stearate (BSO)
A lubricant applied on electrolytic chromium coated steel (Weirchrome) at WSC.

By Coil
Selling term which refers to product sold in the form of a coil vs. cut plate. "Bi Coil" is also used in production to refer to coils vs. cut plate.


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