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Steel Industry Glossary


C.V.C. (Continuous Variable Crown)
Hydraulic system that supplies the force to all the cylinders associated with work-roll balance and bending and back-up roll balance (also supplies force for work roll shifting).

Continuous Anneal.

1. Camber is the deviation of a side edge from a straight edge. Measurement is taken by placing a straight edge on the concave side of a sheet and measuring the distance between the sheet edge and the straight edge in the center of the arc. Camber is caused by one side being elongated more than the other. 2. The hook or dogleg near the ends of a coil

Camber Tolerances
Camber is the deviation from edge straightness. Maximum allowable tolerance of this deviation of a side edge from a straight line are defined in ASTM Standards.

Can Dimensions

Can measurements are expressed in inches and sixteenths of inches in a kind of shorthand. The standard 12 ounce beverage can, for example, is described as 211 by 413, which translates to a 2 11/16 inches in diameter by 4 13/16 inched in height. When a two piece can is described as 211/209/413, this means 2 11/16 inches in diameter, necked in at the top to a 2 9/16 inches by a 4 13/16 inches in height.

Cardboard Drum
Cardboard insert placed on the reel around which the coil is wound. The drum is used to eliminate damage in the center of the coil.

Cathodic Sodium Dichromate
A common treatment applied to passivate the surface of electroytic tin plate against the formation of tin oxides.

See Cathodic Sodium Dichromate.

Center Buckle

A condition in the band of steel where the center (in the direction of rolling) is longer than the edges and has a wave or buckle.

A coating defect consisting of the washboard appearance of the cured film with variations of color or opacity. "Gear marks" is another synonym when the defect is caused by the gear lash of the coating machine. Chattering occurs when the coating machine permits the uneven application of the coating.

A coating defect consisting of the cracking of the cured film into small segments, with hairline cracks separating the segments. The similar defects of mud cracking or alligatoring are the same as checking, but they are larger. Crazing is a synonymous term.

Chemical Treatment
1. (Chem. Treat) A customer-specified rust inhibitor applied to the coated product. 2. A passivating chemical treatment normally applied to the steel surface to control oxide formation and growth. (At Weirton, on black plate, galvanized, and tin mill products chemical treatment can be applied.)

Chemically Brightened
A chemical addition made to the plating bath that results in a coating with a bright appearance as opposed to the mechanically brightened surface appearance (as in Weirton Steel conventional bright electrogalvanized finish).

The chemical composition of steel indicating the amount of carbon, manganese, sulfur, phosphorous and a host of other elements.

Class 1 Surface Quality
A class of cold rolled steel processed to meet requirements for controlled surface texture, flatness, and temper requirements. Produced for exposed applications.

Clean Steel
A Weirton Steel program to develop practices that control the steelmaking process in order to limit the amount of inclusions present in the steel.

Cleaning Tank
This section of the plater is used to remove dirt, oil, grease, oxides and other contaminates from the surface of material to be electroplated. A cleaning agent is used at a temperature of 180-190 degrees.

For internal steel quality, a measure of the size and frequency of inclusions; for external steel surface quality, a measure of the amount of extraneous materials (such as dirt, iron particles, carbon, etc.) on the steel surface.

The process of covering steel with another material (tin, chrome, and zinc at WSC), primarily for corrosion resistance.

Coating Weight

1. In the Sheet Mill, the amount of Zinc on a galvanized sheet measured in ounces per square foot. 2. Specified in pounds (or parts thereof) of tin coating per base box. This term is often misunderstood because in most cases the decimal point is omitted when written or printed.

Coating Weight Test
A test of the weight of the coating measured 2 inches from each side of the strip and at the center.

A length of steel wound into roll-form.

Coil Breaks
1. A physical condition produced in the cooling tower or quench tank area of the line due to improper temperature control during cooling. 2. Creases or ridges which appear as parallel lines, transverse to the direction of rolling, and which generally extend across the width of the sheet. 3. A discontinuous curvature in the strip in the direction in which the material was rolled or uncoiled. Generally found in uncoiled hot rolled strip.

Coil End
ID of a coil that is left because of a defect. Ranging from 500 - 10,000 pounds. Anything 10,000 pounds and over get an IPM. A coil with a weight less than 5000 lbs. that does not meet customer specifications is called a salvage coil. These coils do not get an IPM number

Coil Line Markings
A light white-gray mark (square, circle, line, diamond, etc.) which has been placed on the strip by the platers. This mark serves as an indication to the feeder that the placement of the coil on the entry reel must be placed correctly to meet customer specifications (external customers request this mark to distinguish coating on the strip). The Feeder must refer to the scheduling book to determine how to place the coil on the entry reel for over or under wind.

Coil Number
Produced IPM Number assigned to a coil. IPM (In Process Material) Number.

Coil Set
A curvature of the strip in the lengthwise sense, parallel to the direction in which the strip was rolled or uncoiled.

Carbonizing coal made in oven by driving off volatile elements. It is a hard porous substance that is principally pure carbon. In blast furnaces, coke helps generate the 3000 F. temperatures and reducing gases needs to smelt iron ore.

Cold Reduction Mill
Sheet and strip are cold reduced to the desired thickness for the following reasons: 1) To obtain the desired surface. 2) To impart desired mechanical properties. 3) To make gauges lighter than the hot strip mill can produce economically. 4) To produce sheet and strip of more uniform thickness.

Cold Roll Base
Coils that are cold worked or reduced to gauge on the tandem mill.

Cold Rolled Sheet
A product manufactured from hot rolled descaled (pickled) coils by cold reducing to the desired thickness, generally followed by annealing and temper rolling. If the sheet is not annealed after cold reduction it is known as full hard. (See Full Hard Cold Rolled).

Cold Rolling Mill
A mill that reduces the cross sectional area of the metal by rolling at approximately room temperature.

Cold Rolling
Term applied to the operation of passing unheated metal through rolls for the purpose of reducing its gauge.

Cold Strip Mill
A mill that rolls strip without first reheating.

Cold Work
Plastic deformation at such temperatures and rates that substantial increases occur in the strength and hardness of the metal visible structural changes include changes in grain shape and, in some instances, mechanical twinning or banding.

Commercial Tolerance
A range by which a product's specifications can deviate from those ordered and still meet the industry accepted ranges (defined in ASTM Standards, etc.)

Contact Rolls
Metal rolls that are used in the chem. treat area. Electricity goes through these rolls.

Contingency Route
Each route will, if possible, have an alternate route defined for rapid re-assignments of a transport order in the event that primary preferred route is not available.

Continuous Anneal
A process by which the steel is rapidly heated, soaked and cooled at a confirmed rate by passing the coil at a relatively high speed through a furnace consisting of numerous sections.

Continuous Casting

A process that continuously casts molten steel into a semifinished product such as slab. It bypasses the traditional process of pouring (teeming) molten steel into ingots, reheating those ingots, and then rolling them into semifinished steel shapes.

Continuous Weld
Continuously welding one coil to another at the entry end and splitting off coils of a specific weight at delivery end.

Inside diameter of a coil.

Corrective Leveling
Capability of a leveling machine to remove or reduce shape defects across the strip, coil, or sheet, in addition to flattening lengthwise curvatures. Generally employs 17 to 23 small diameter rolls with adjustable back ups for varying nest across face of machine.

Gradual chemical or electrochemical attack on a metal by atmosphere, moisture or other agents.

Corrosion Resistance

The intrinsic ability of a material to resist degradation by corrosion. This ability can be enhanced by application of "special" coatings on the surface of the material.

Cracked Edges

Discontinuity or cracked condition on the edge of the strip.

A coating defect consisting of a break in the cured film which exposes the bare substrate. Cracking usually occurs during fabrication of the coated plate when the coating is too brittle or the adhesion is too low.

A coating defect consisting of small, apparently uncoated, spots of coated plate consisting of a very thin film of coating which was contaminated by oil, silicone, or foreign matter. Eyeholing is similar to cratering, but with metal exposure in the crater.

A coating defect consisting of a lack of adhesion to, or dewetting of, the substrate while the coating or ink is wet. The cause is due to a difference in surface tension of the coating and substrate. Crawling is also known as cissing and dewetting.

Cold-rolled, electrolytic, double-reduced tin plate, approximate gauge = .0050 "-.0080".

Crimped Edge
A damaged edge due to the strip wandering side-to-side into obstructions as it moves down the line.

A curvature across the width of the strip at a 90-degree angle to the direction in which the strip has been rolled or uncoiled.

Cross Breaks

1. Creases which appear as parallel lines transverse to the direction of rolling. 2. Quality defect on the edge of plate coming to the line (broken steel but not open breaks). 3. Hard spots caused by abrupt deformation of the strip after hot rolling and due to stressing beyond the elastic limit of the metal.

1. The difference in thickness between the edge and center of the strip. 2. Thickened center of a strip of steel; can also have a crown on the work roll; two-point crown on a roll means a crown of 0.002 inches. 3. The crown, or center, refers to the tendency of a sheet to be heavier in gauge in the center than on the edges. It may be caused by the use of hollow, or worn back-up rolls, work rolls improperly ground, or excessive work in the last finishing stand.

Cure Time
Full polymerization is a function of time and temperature.

The process by which synthetic materials form continuous films by various combinations of oxidation, solvent evaporation and heat of polymerization according to their basic resin structures.

Cut Edge

The normal edge that results from the shearing, slitting or trimming of a mill edge.


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